Author Topic: Colours of Galaxies in SDSS : Redshift chart  (Read 15665 times)

Budgieye

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Colours of Galaxies in SDSS : Redshift chart
« on: January 30, 2010, 12:30:42 pm »
This chart was created when Galaxy Zoo 2 was using SDSS dr7 data. It will not work for Hubble Zoo.
Different types of galaxies have different colours. The colour of the galaxy changes with distance away (redshift) too.
Galaxies that have several of these characteristics are discussed at the end. There is a table of redshifts and colour at the end.

The following charts have clickable images of a sample of galaxies.  The types of objects are:
ellipticals - produce white light, from white stars
spirals - produce blue light from blue stars
compacts - produce ultraviolet light (UV) from young stars (star-forming galaxies)
OIII objects - produce emission lines from hot oxygen
active nuceus - produce emission lines from hot hydrogen (Hα emissions)
« Last Edit: July 08, 2011, 05:29:39 am by Budgieye »

Budgieye

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Re: Colours of Galaxies : Redshift chart z=0 to 0.09
« Reply #1 on: January 30, 2010, 12:33:39 pm »
older starsyounger starsstar-forming UVOIII emissionsHα emissions



0.000 white star
in our galaxy
587739406764474539


0.000 blue star
in our galaxy
587741602026422330


0.0 nebula
in our galaxy
no ObjId
HH25 (Herbig-Haro)
Wolf-Rayet nebula
ignore centre star
LizPeter


0.000 planetary nebula
in our galaxy
587731870705057817
M97 Owl Nebula
ignore centre star
LizPeter


0 supernova remnant
in our galaxy
587738067267813400
ignore centre star
LizPeter


0.003 elliptical galaxy
587726032790093907
zookeeper_anze



0.001spiral galaxy
587735665842389066
Pinwheel galaxy
LankyYankee


0.002
587733605328355347
posted by c_cld


0.001 blue Compact
587735695913386093
quarkspin


0.001"wind" in M82
587738067813859388
Alice


0.004  elliptical
588017991757987991
IC 3518
elizabeth


0.018 blue
588015510349611150
UGC 00618
elizabeth


0.005 Blue Compact
588009370691567769
posted by Bruno


0.005
587732483816423467
UGCA 216
j_doe


0.005
587734892211142692
Markarian  731
Rick Nowell


0.015 elliptical
587739406804189307
Mukund Vedapudi



0.018 spiral
588015510349611150
UGC 00618
elizabeth


0.013 blue compact
587725469061283965
posted by Ioannab


0.010 blue pea
587738409789751347
laihro


0.008 green nucleus
587731868561244241
NGC 4194
Medusa merger
elisabeth

0.027 elliptical
588016891173208111
waveney



0.027 spiral
587738946131722387
RandyC


0.028 compact
587738952034025563
posted by djj

0.026
587732484357161015
MRK 1448
Halibut


0.021 green nucleus
587738569786458210
Markarian 0796
Rick Nowell

0.038 lenticular
587733429234237557
IC 1069
posted by marhorr



0.037 spiral
588017702954270962
echo-lily-mai


0.030
587734862144077998
c_cld

0.03 Blue Compact
587739609155633199
linguist


0.034 quasar with jet
587739720846934175
laithro


0.048 elliptical
587722983898742801
Geoff



0.048 spiral
587732050557927478
marty


0.042 compact
587739407859122369
mitch


0.042 blue pea
588009366395879490
SHOC 220
posted fluffy porcupine


0.047 QSO
587726879424839709
Rick Nowell


0.053 elliptical
587736752468459681
posted by Gary



0.057 spiral
588023045873205432
elisabeth


0.056 compact
587730848502644768
Quialiss


0.058 purple pea
587734948052598924
posted by mitch


0.050 Seyfert 1
588017726554767455
Markarian 1347
elisabethB


0.068 elliptical
588017565487595596
waveney



0.069 spiral
587728668804644919
Mukund Vedapudi


0.064 compact
587733608016969915
echo-lily-mai


0.076 purple pea
587735346962497616
posted by sdrew123


0.067 Seyfert1
587742773491531836
elisabethB


0.077 elliptical
587733603718987891




0.072 spiral
587742014901452957
RandyC


0.071 compact
588017730302312588
c_cld


0.077 purple pea
587742013267771528
posted by Karma


0.077 Seyfert 1
587739504478060626
marcelv


0.084 elliptical
587741722823557218




0.086 spiral
588017979980906569
RandyC


0.080 compact
587731186207621250
StephanieC


0.082 purple pea
587727179003723785
starry nite


0.085 active nucleus
587736809916399664
fluffy porcupine


0.094 elliptical?
587736976883908844




0.093 spiral
588017705070100577
posted by Marcus2

~0.9 compact
587742775634296930
MRK 1317
Rick Nowell


0.093 purple pea
588017605228298342
posted by Alice


0.096 Seyfert 
587732483819962452
Markarian 1447
Rick Nowell MRK list


« Last Edit: June 06, 2014, 06:12:15 am by Budgieye »

Budgieye

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Re: Colours of Galaxies : Redshift chart z=0.10-0.99
« Reply #2 on: January 30, 2010, 12:36:58 pm »
older stars       younger stars           star-forming UVOIII emissionHα emission     



0.132 elliptical
587730847428510150


0.165 spiral
588016891171635444
NGC3314/waveney


0.150 compact
587725980152758406
spiralmania



0.148 white pea
587731680116867174
starry nite

0.123 Seyfert 1
588007003629813783
Rick Nowell

0.24 elliptical
587735665306763364
c_cld, from  Hubble



0.199
587742014352326759
posted by Karakara





0.201 starburst
588297863119896669
ElisabethB


0.247 green pea
587724234248552589
posted by Hanny


0.229 quasar
587741491445432393
codexluminati



0.362 elliptical?
587725492134805936
jpodkow



0.29 barred spiral
588011123577651640
elizabeth


0.376 green starburst
587745244158427307
posted by mitch


0.312 green pea
587736915687964980
ccardamone's list
pea hunters



0.330 blue quasar
587722984435089476
volare09


0.452 luminous red
587733412060987606
gumbosea


~0.4 spiral?
587735348022477078
posted by elisabethB
also see h.kohler

0.476 green starburst
587732701783589053
posted by Hrundi

0.469 yellow pea
587726033846599793
laihro,red pea 0.484



0.435 blue quasar
587741391037005841
Bruno



0.558 elliptical?
587741600957333763
ElisabethB

0.5 barred spiral
587726032772530922
by c_cld, from Hubble


0.50 yellow starburst
587744728761172273
posted by mitch


0.587 red pea
587728932419076622
djj



0.588 blue quasar
587725505559920842
Bruno



0.641 elliptical?
587732470925886144
sayonave08



0.640 radio source
587731512082563479
posted by mitch

0.57 starburst?
587732583666286811
c_cld



 

0.635 red pea
588018056184529107
posted by starry nite


0.609 blue quasar
587739827137478733
erratton



0.702 radio source
587733603183952437
posted by mitch


0.7 barred spiral
587727944571028350
c_cld, from  Hubble


0.75 starburst?
587730774947594643
c_cld



 

0.732 red pea?
587726013998104775
posted by starry nite




0.767 blue quasar
587726102559457397
oswego9050



0.884
588017978355745177
posted AlexandredOr


0.81 spiral
587735664769827267
c_cld, from  Hubble



 

0.799 lensed starburst
587724650875453828


0.810 red pea ?
587733399189914218
posted by Solarsonja



0.887 blue quasar
587731173844975962
Bruno


0.920?
588010359612506196
posted by mitch



0.91 spiral
587735695377694972
c_cld, from  Hubble


 

0.996 purple arc
587733412060987609
gumbosea




0.935 red pea?
587739295087657110
"pea hunters list"





0.954 blue quasar
588013382734381143
spiralmania



« Last Edit: June 06, 2014, 05:42:22 am by Budgieye »

Budgieye

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Re: Colours of Galaxies : Redshift chart z=1.0 to 6.4
« Reply #3 on: January 30, 2010, 12:40:53 pm »
older stars                 younger stars               star-forming UV     OIII emissions     hydrogen emissions 



1.024
the dim blob
in the center
8658198134352183470
posted by c_cld

0.98 spiral
587735664769827632
c_cld, from  Hubble


1.4 clumpy ring
588011123577586119
h.kohler/Tsering

1.14 pea?
587733412593468033
PhotoZ 0.7 in SDSS
pea+star?
AHZ100013x
paulrogers



1.552 pink quasar
587726013998104664
starry nite


2.73 lensed starburst
588290880028999911


2.380 blue quasar
587724197208784974
volare09


3.295 blue quasar
587742189897973845
Tsering


4.093 green quasar
587729408614334650
davidjamesjones


5.414 red quasar
587727180613353723
starry nite
farthest confirmed
 on SDSS
with spectrum
see also z=5.685

6.4 infrared quasar
588013383815791587
Mukund Vedapudi
farthest seen on SDSS?
no spectrum on SDSS
   

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
There are many empty places in the higher redshifts because the light from ordinary galaxies is redshifted into infrared light,
which the SDSS camera cannot see. SDSS can see galaxies whose UV light is redshifted into visible light.
« Last Edit: June 07, 2014, 07:43:53 am by Budgieye »

Budgieye

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Re: Colours of Galaxies : Redshift chart: complicated examples
« Reply #4 on: January 30, 2010, 12:51:13 pm »
Sometimes a galaxy has characteristics of several types of galaxies.
So it isn't so easy.

Look at its spectral chart. For help see Zooite Guide to Spectra



Look at the "white pea".
587731680116867174

The colours in the images are in these areas on the chart
                           blue light     
                         4000-5500 Å     
                           green light     
                         5500-7000 Å     
                           red light     
                         7000-8500  Å     

This "white pea" has a blue rise at 4000 Å   and a small blue OII peak,
and a green OIII peak
Normally, this would make a green pea.
But the nucleus is active, making a Hα peak in the red.
So, blue + green + red = white

Looking at some other examples

This is a star-forming galaxy, making blue light. It would have a yellow nucleus (yellow is green+red)
But the nucleus is also a blue pea, as seen by the OIII peak in the blue area of the spectrum.  So the nucleus is white  (white=blue+green+red)
0.032
588017115595145398
StephanieC
0.079
This should be a blue compact galaxy, but it has an active nucleus, adding red to make a purple colour
587736547386261566
posted by c_cld
This should be a green pea (OIII peak in green) , but it has an active nucleus (Hα peak in the red), so it is yellow. (green+red=yellow)
0.236
587738946670035133
liathro
This is a green starburst, but it has an active nucleus (red), so it becomes yellow (green+red=yellow)
0.166
587739305298886782
posted by LizPeter
This should be a magenta quasar (blue rise at 4000 + red Hα peak), but it is also a green pea, so it is white (green+blue+red=white)
0.326 quasar
587739406768144385
laithro
This should be a blue quasar (blue rise at 40000), but it is also a red pea, so it is magenta (blue + red), also called purple, or sometimes pink
0.593
588009372300804174
liathro
This is mostly a blue quasar, but it is also an ageing starburst, which adds a red colour to make magenta
0.752
587730774947594643
posted by c_cld



Then just when you think it starts to make sense, see
waveneys red spirals and blue ellipticals
 
For suggestions to changes to this chart, see Colours of Galaxies : Redshift chart suggestions on the Suggestions and Comments thread http://www.galaxyzooforum.org/index.php?topic=277143.0
 
Almost all the examples posted have a spectrum available.
Information on spectral charts is at Zooite Guide to Spectra
Do you want easy answers to a spectrum question? See Newbies, post your spectrum questions here or
Do you want exact answere to a spectrum question? See Tutorial bits on galaxy spectra


Other colour charts
liathro's colour survey (peas)
liathro's A little previously unknown objects gallery
OOTD Fri Jan 19 2009 Rick Nowells Markarian peas montage
Redshift Gallery: Quasars

Lists of objects (have I missed any?)
starry nite's OIII galaxy catalog
lianthro's OIII object categories
pea chart
Rick Nowell list of ccardamone's peas for the publication
Rick Nowells list of Markarians
Rick Nowells list of Wolf-Rayets

I can't take much credit for the chart: it is the work of thousands of Zooites.
Thank you to the Zooites who posted objects on the forum, all pretty and organized, so all I had to do was choose examples.
Thank you to the Zooites and astronomers who took time to share their knowledge,
and the moderators, and ZooKeepers, and SDSS for the images.

This chart was created when Galaxy Zoo 2 was using SDSS data.
It will not work for Hubble Zoo.

Here is a written chart


Different types of galaxies have different colours.
The colour of the galaxy changes with distance away (redshift) too.

Here is a table arranged by the type of object, and distance.


The types of objects are:
ellipticals - produce white light, from white stars
spirals - produce blue light from blue stars
compacts - produce ultraviolet light (UV) from young stars (star-forming galaxies)
OIII objects - produce emission lines from hot oxygen
active nuceus - produce emission lines from hot hydrogen

Galaxies that have several of these characteristics are discussed at the end.


                                                 redshift table for colours of galaxies
redshiftMillion ellipticals        spirals             star-forming            oxygen emission hydrogen emission
     zlight-yearwhite   blue   ultra-violet OIII
     0                0white starsblue starsyoung starsblue nebulaegreen nebulae
     .001        14ellipticalsblue armsblue compactOIII regionsgreen emissions
     0.01        137ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactOIII regionsgreen nucleus
     0.02        272ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactblue peasgreen nucleus
     0.03        405ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactblue peasmagenta nucleus
     0.04        536ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactblue peasmagenta nucleus
     0.05        665ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactpurple peasmagenta nucleus
     0.06        793ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactpurple peasmagenta nucleus
     0.07        919ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactpurple peasmagenta nucleus
     0.08      1040ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactpurple peasmagenta nucleus
     0.09      1170ellipticalsblue spiralsblue compactpurple peasmagenta nucleus
     0.1       1290yellow blobsblue spiralsblue compactwhite/green peas magenta quasars
     0.2      2410yellow blobsblue spiralswhite compactgreen peaswhite quasars
     0.3      3390yellow blobsblue smudgegreen starburstgreen peaswhite quasars
     0.4      4260yellow blobsgreen smudgegreen starburstyellow peasblue quasars
     0.5      5020orange blobsgreen smudgeyellow starburstred peasblue quasars
     0.6      5690red blobsyellow smudgered starburstred peasblue quasars
     0.7      6290red blobsred smudgemagenta starbustred peasblue quasars
     0.8      6830red blobsred smudgemagenta starburstred peasblue quasars
     0.9      7300red blobsred smudge magenta starburstred peasblue quasars
     1.0      7730smudgewhite starburstmagenta quasars
     2.0    10300 white starburstblue quasars
     3.0    11500 white starburstblue quasars
     4.0    12100 green quasars
     5.0    12500 red quasars
     6.0    12700..................................................
1089      13770Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
    ∞      13770 Big Bang
         
 
SDSS colours are used
color explanatation by laithro, starry nite and FermatsBrothers

Descriptions of unusual types of galaxies


« Last Edit: June 06, 2014, 06:02:04 am by Budgieye »

Edd

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Re: Colours of Galaxies : Redshift chart
« Reply #5 on: January 30, 2010, 07:15:12 pm »
Good heavens (excuse the unintentional pun?) - that's very comprehensive! Well done!
When I look up at the night sky and think about the billions of stars out there, I think to myself: I'm amazing. - Peter Serafinowicz