Several superluminal updates have appeared in a few hours, following the Vixra update.
Over at Marni's blog-http://pseudomonad.blogspot.com/2011/09/rumour-of-century.html#comments
Relevant to supernova neutrino cosmology is Strassler's sitehttp://profmattstrassler.com/2011/09/20/supernovas-and-neutrinos/
On this latter post and relevant to the galaxyzoo forum reader, the supernova mechanisms whether types I or II involve the rapid transmutation within a few seconds of much of the stellar mass. Most of the elements as a plasma that can be denoted as a mix of protons,electrons and neutrons are about to be transmuted into neutrons. For every extra neutron that is formed a neutrino is emitted. A collossal blast of neutrinos, ~1058
is the operation of the weak force SU(2)whereby a proton ie. 2u quarks and a d quark flips, is mirror transformed into a neutron, 2d's and a u. The important thing is the observed result. Theoretically, the imaginary number i is the complex number system that contains the identity and transforms i into -i. SU(2) is twice of what the rotational symmetry is in 3 dimensions SO(3), and covers that previous mentioned topic by Alice of when fermion half integer spin requires a 760o
rotation to bring i back to -i, the socalled double cover. SU(2) is also the symmetry group of the quaternions. The theorists are forced to handle extra symmetries and have only the remaining three exceptional groups of normed algebra's which Lie himself didn't accept, mainly because they were discovered by his contemporary Killing. The first or E6
is Killing's or bioctonions that represent complex numbers i,j,k and octonions; the second or E7
is constructed from quaternions and octonions. Finally, E8
is built from octonions and octonions. Dirac's vector spinor relationships only hold when the spacetime dimension is 2 greater than that of the normed division algebra dimensions. With extra new neutrinos to account for each spinor is accounted for by two numbers in the associated division algebra. The octonions specify that that associated string theories are 10 dimensional. At this point maths has reached the end of the road, there are no more normed division algebras; dimensions 1,2,4 and 8 ; dimension 16 for the sedenions has no physical application?. Back to the empirical observation.
The neutrinos leave from a tiny region. It's perhaps Earth sized as a white dwarf or as an even more compact source, a neutron star supported by quantum pressure onto which normal matter is accreted in the approach to the limiting 1.4 solar mass condition. The explosion happens and the neutrinos leave mostly unimpeded. However, the luminosity in the visible region arises from themalising the extreme high energy gamma and X rays in an outer envelope that is of size light hours, from the radiogenically created 56
Ni and 56
Co. This process takes hours and days to build up. Hence, the neutrino wave travels ahead of the thermalised photon extended flash and doesn't imply superluminal velocity. For the Large Magellanic supernoval flash back in 1987, if I recall, the neutrino signal was a couple of hours ahead and 24 years hence , it is still ahead although 24 light years distance. In this case, the neutrinos and photons had flight times of 150,000 years. The Pinwheel Galaxy supernova involves a flight time of 21 million years, two orders of magnitude greater flight time although I doubt the neutrino signal can be recorded. If it could be measured out to greater cosmological distance it would represent a direct test of superluminal velocity.