Welcome to the zoo Danisimo!
I agree with Liz on the good place to start
1) An artifact is something the camera has done, usually a flare - something very bright that messes up the image (often with spectacularly beautiful results).
2) An irregular galaxy is a galaxy without any sort of structure, like spiral or elliptical. They often look like blue clouds. A disturbed galaxy is a galaxy which is interacting with another, or clearly has done in the past, so it's pulled out of shape.
3) I'd classify that as an overlap. (But even if you put merger, it's OK. It can be checked.) If galaxies are merging, they'll be pulled out of shape, for example long arms or loops or just silly shapes.
4) I'm often confused about that too
I think it's easy to confuse "bulge" with "core". This, for example, is a core not a bulge:
and that is a smooth galaxy. A bulge is this, what you see in the edge-on galaxy, an actual shape:
5) I'd call that a spiral. I can see spiral arms, even though they're embedded within the disk.
6) A lens or arc is a curved, often discoloured (blue or grey) "ring" shape, or piece of ring, around the galaxy, this
Hope all this helps! Don't worry too much about getting it "right". The most important thing is that this is not a test, with the answer in the back of the textbook. We are not aiming for single "answers", but for varieties of everything people see. If different people say different things about galaxies, it is a good thing - it means the galaxy has lots of features to study.